عنوان مقاله [English]
Humans hold a distinctive place in the universe, and various intellectual systems offer diverse perspectives on the human place. Muslim mystics present their own interpretation of the nature and position of humans. ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla al-Simnānī, a mystic and theologian from the eighth century AH associated with the Kubrawi order during the Mongol Ilkhanate era, extensively explores the significance and existential dimensions of humans in his works. This research aims to elucidate ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla's perspective on the human place in the universe, the existential relationship between humans and God, as well as the existential dimensions of humans. According to ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla, humans occupy a unique position among creatures owing to distinctive traits such as their exceptional talent, comprehensiveness, and succession of God. He categorizes humans into two groups: perfect humans and animal humans. Perfect humans, deemed the most perfect existence among creatures, serve as the final cause and sustaining force of the universe. Meanwhile, animal humans exhibit varying degrees of existence. Humans, in this framework, possess two dimensions: body and soul. The soul undergoes various stages, each reflecting specific properties. ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla refers to these stages as the "seven graces."