نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری مذاهب کلامی، دانشگاه ادیان و مذاهب، قم، ایران
2 استادیار دانشکده معارف و اندیشه اسلامی ، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
3 استادیار گروه فلسفه دین، دانشگاه ادیان و مذاهب، قم، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Given the principles, the theological approach of the Twelvers and Asharites towards the doctrine of salvation in the Hereafter is different. However, sometimes they have a common view on salvage means. The Twelvers believe that the unity of actions is all-encompassing and purposeful, and by committing to the intellectual goodness and badness of things, they consider man free in his actions. They hold wisdom, divine justice and free will as the foundations of the knowledge of salvation and consider freedom as the basis of perfection for human beings. But the Asharites believe that the only effective factor in creating human deeds is the divine power, and man only plays the role of acquirer. They accept the Sharia goodness and badness and reject the purposefulness in God's actions and hold man to be forced in his deeds. Imami and Asharite theologians consider the believers who oppose their sects and even the followers of other religions to be saved. According to Twelvers, believing in the Imamate of the Ahl al-Bayt (AS) (The Prophet's Household) is one of the means of salvation and they hold that giving rewards to the servants is a matter of grace and merit. Relying on divine wisdom and justice, they establish the reward and punishment for the righteous and the wicked on the basis of justice, which is distorted without the reward and punishment of the Hereafter. But the Asharites consider the giving of rewards to the believers as a mere bounty of God. By denying the causal relationship and adhering to the principle of God's habit, they allow duty beyond human power and believe that whatever God does is the same as wisdom and justice, even though it is regarded as oppression by ordinary human minds.